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The Pipe-Pipe-Equals

It is hard to come up with a google-friendly name for the ||= construct you see in some programming languages quite often, "pipe-pipe-equals" being the is the closest (other names include "double-pipe equals," "or-equal," or "double-or equals"). Why should we name this monster in the first place? While cryptic at first sight, it is a very convenient shorthand that, I believe, allows us to write cleaner code. Let's see how it works on this example:

Essentially this ||= construct is equivalent to other convenience operators, such as +=. x += 2; means x = x + 2. The "or" operator || usually denotes a weak logical "or" that doesn't try to compute the left-hand side if the right-hand side is true. Usually, meaningful values evaluate to true, while the only evaluating to false are NULL pointers/empty values, zeroes, boolean Falses, and, sometimes, empty strings.

Alternatively, you could set a default hash value, but ||= is used more widely, and also takes exactly one line... doesn't it? ;-)

The statement is used mostly to set a variable to a "default" value if it's "unset" at some point. This gives the most visible advantage when you initialized dictionary elements in a loop. Here's a piece that saves counts of each array element into a dictionary (Ruby):

In some languages (Perl, Javascript), you could not even bother with this, as += 1 on an unset value would result in its assignment to 1.

If you don't initialize output[x], you'll get a runtime error for trying to increment NULL. The advantage of ||= against other ways is that you don't repeat anything. You could have written the same piece as

Oh yes... we forgot about the most natural use of ||=, for booleans. Here's how we'd check if an array contains zeroes if we need to iterate over its elements for something else.

Pipe-pipe-equals is rarely used this "natural" way, though.

But here you have to type output[x] twice and add two more lines of code, which is a complete waste of screen space and, possibly, computing resources if the interpreter doesn't optimize the duplicated computation out. Let's take a look how pipe-pipe-equals works in different languages (we've already seen it in action in Ruby).


Perl was the first interpreted language I learned, and the first place I saw the pipe-pipe-equals operator in. It works as expected, but is used less often than the direct version of the weak logical "or" to specify default parameters of a function. Here's how you'd put a default to a hash bucket:

This works in a strict mode, too. Note that, in Perl, many things evaluate to false, including empty strings (I once even tried to emulate it in Ruby). To restrict this action to undefs only, use //= in Perl6 instead, which sinks to its right like the Pisa tower, and look as if you're trying to put a division while drunk.


Python has no equivalent of this operator. You have to type the very[long(expression)] twice, and it will be computed twice. You have several different ways to do this:

The engineers more experienced in Python programming, though, assure me that this is not a big deal since you have a different way of supplying default arguments for a function, which seemingly covers half of the use cases for pipe-pipe-equals (this doesn't prevent Ruby from having both, though). Another half is covered by dictionary's dict.get(key, []) method, so that the code piece #1 can be written in a succinct manner. But I still miss it.

Bash (Linux shell)

Bash? Its language is so simplistic, and it looks creepy; how come it would have an equivalent of such a beautiful shortcut? Here it is:

This assigns y to variable if the former is unset or null (as per Bash manual). I mostly used it to set default parameters for environment variables user may or may not set before invoking the script.


While |= is a syntactically correct expression (C++ does not have the "short-circuit" version of this expression), it doesn't do what we discussed here.

C++ is statically typed, so the result of the standard logical "or" is boolean. Retaining the nice semantics we find in a dynamically typed language would require it to be "either the type of the left-hand side or the type of the right-hand side". This is hard to pull in a pass-by-value statically typed language.

Pass-by-value semantics also means that not everything can be assigned a NULL, and not everything can be converted to boolean value. C++ has default arguments as well as Python, so the same reasoning could apply here. You'll have to be more verbose in C++. That's probably why only |= expression is available, which is only useful if its left-hand-side is bool (see sidebar above for similar usage.)


Everything said above about C++ applies to OCaml as well. Moreover, OCaml, as a functional language, doesn't have a flawless support for mutation, and pipe-pipe-equals statement its inherently mutational. However, its matching operator would require us to use the very_long_variable twice. However, OCaml and other functional languages have a very interesting construct called "option". If something has "X option" type, it may contain either "nothing" or a value of x. Then, this value may be "unpacked" trough pattern matching:

let very_long_variable = match very_long_variable with None -> y | Some t -> t

here, t is not an shorthand for another very long expression; instead, it's just an identifier, written as is. The match...with allows us to "unpack" values of structured (algebraic) types with shorthands like this. Since this was too long, OCaml has made this a library function Option#default:

let very_long_variable = Option.default very_long_variable y

Anyway, OCaml programs are even more explicit than those in C++ and Python, so trying to tie pipe-pipe-equals into them is quite pointless.


"Erm, we saw how it is in Ruby at the beginning," you might think. Well, I lied to you a bit. The thing is that, in Ruby, it is not strictly equivalent to an assignment to a result of logical "or". Which do you think x ||= y is equivalent to?

In Ruby, and only for ||= and &&=, it's the second. If you assign to something other than a local variables, what looks like an assignment is actually a method call (think properties,) and, if so, this assignment does not happen at all if the left-hand side of ||= is false. Which makes sense, but looks like a special case. Read more here.

Why You Might not Need This

Some argue that this operator is mostly useless, especially if their favourite language doesn't have it. Here are some arguments they list.


Indeed, this expression is redundant. You can do the same in a multiple different ways, All the examples I demonstrated above showed how to write essentially a simple if statement in a very short-hand form. The number of characters spared is probably not worth it to include support for this feature to a language designer's must-have checklist.

The statement discussed decreases the redundancy in code in return of broader language definition; each language seeks a balance between these, and often leaves the pipe-pipe-equals aside.

Default Function Arguments

The ability to specify default function argument (C++, Python, Ruby, but not Bash or Perl) covers many use-cases for ||=. However, this doesn't help fancy loops that fill complex structures, one of which we showed above. Nor helps it when you have to specify the default parameter anyway but the concrete value is not known at the time of coding, and is an optional field user may or may not fill.


It is confusing. The pipe-pipe-equals requires explanations how it works. It becomes a special snowflake, different from its "mathematical" counterparts +=, if a complex language wants to make its very useful (see Ruby section above). While "confusion" as an excuse of not doing something is my pet peeve (and I tried to explain why), it indeed requires some effort to understand the mechanics. I'm sure that you'll love it once you understand it, and the way I learned about this operator is not by reading a textbook or "The Most Confusing and Obscure Programming Language Features Possible" newsletter, but by reading someone's code.

To Use or Not To Use?

When it comes to deciding whether or not to use pipe-pipe-equals in the "creepy" way we discussed throughout the post, the criticism somehow fades out. If the language supports this, it will be used. I haven't encountered any coding style document that bans this feature. In Ruby and Perl, it is considered as good of an idiom as many. So the answer on the question of whether or not you sohuld use pipe-pipe-equals (||=) in your programs is, definitely, "yes".

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A Tie for a Python Programmer

A couple of weeks ago I started a new project in ROSA. The project is a dynamic system that tracks health of our Linux distribution repository in real-time by watching the builds and repository status, and running external analyzers. This is a relatively small system that should end up with less than 50k LoC, so I could choose any language I wanted. I would choose Ruby, of course, but this time I had to raise the significance of social issues, and chose Python. I never wrote a single Python program before, but all my peers didn't want to learn Ruby, so I took this chance to learn a new language.

Python logo

This is the logo of Python the programming language. Definitely, these aren't snakes, sure.

Python is named after Monty Python's flying Circus, as per wikipedia entry rather than after a non-venomous snake family. Snakes, however, are featured at the Python's logo, and Monty Pythons are not well known in Russia, so it's easier to associate snakes with Python language when it comes to computing.

To aid me in learning a new language, and to make it more fun, I needed an artifact that helps me. Due to my unhealthy devotion to shirts/ties, I thought of buying a tie with snakes painted on them. I didn't find one although I searched all shops in my district, including those that sell clothes for kids. I couldn't even find a tie made out of snake skin; while they're referenced in literature, they're either mythological or require the social connections I don't have to obtain one.

It wasn't until my colleague linked me this website when I found the way to make a snake out of my tire. Indeed, if I can't buy one, why can't I make one?


I started with a black tie I no longer liked. Time to revive it by turning it into a programmer-friendly snake! Here's a step-by-step guide, inspired by the one linked above. You'll need

  • 50 grams of cotton wool;
  • a piece of red cloth (polyethylene should go as well)
  • a sheet of A4 paper to experiment with the eyes, a pen to paint the pupils; and
  • something to attach the two latter things to tie (glue, pins, and/or sticky tape, see below).

Making the Snake Tie

Start with tying your favorite knot, and marking the place where it ends. Starting from that place and below, the two-dimensional tie will turn into a three-dimensional snake. Open the tie up making sure it won't fall apart (I had to re-knot the threads that were running through the yet-to-become Python manually—I didn't have any GIL to assist me!) I had to also open the bottom end of the tie, because it was detached from the upper part:

Start filling the tie with the cotton wool. To make the wool through the tie, you might need something long and stiff, I used a toothbrush.

As you fill the tie, it may no longer keep the original shape. I used a pin to strengthen the lower end. To make the pin completely hidden, stick it into the inner half outwards, and pin the outer one onto it, hiding the pin itself in the fold.

Do not fill it all the way to the knot point! Tie the knot first. Here's the Windsor knot I tied; look how you still have the access to the hole you made at the very beginning. Stuff the tie with more cotton wool.

Now you can attach a tongue. A nice red split tongue is what makes your former tie a mighty snake rather than a boring worm. Cut it from the red cloth you prepared. I had to cut it several times before I managed to make a tongue good enough. Attach it with a small pin, sticking it as close as possible to the tip of the tie. The pin will be concealed when you look from the front side.

Now make eyes for your snake. I just painted with a pen on small pieces of paper. This is an easy part; you may experiment as much as you like; I found that the snake looks most crazy if the eyes are placed close to each other. I also felt that the color of the pupils should fit the color of the tie itself, so I used black.

After you found the proper shape and place for the eyes, you should attach them. Sticking a nail into your future friend's eye is disgusting (and the result wouldn't look real enough), so you'd rather use glue. I didn't have any glue, so I used one-sided sticky tape a body patch was made of, and rolled it up to make it "two-sided".

Your new friend is ready. Make sure it stays away from mice!

If you're brave enough, you may even go to work wearing it.

I hope I won't get fired because of that. This would be programming language discrimination anyway!


So that's how you—or, more likely, your kid—can assemble a Python tie from the old useless things you find at home. I hope that programming Python itself will be different than putting the same old stuff together—and more fun.

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